The Janka scale rates the relative hardness of wood. We have listed some of the most popular choices in wood flooring and included some more exotic species for your reference and comparison.

The higher the number the harder the wood. These ratings were determined using the Janka Hardness Test  which measures the side hardness measure of the  force required to embed a .444 inch steel ball to half its diameter into the wood. This is one of the best measures of the ability of wood species to withstand denting and wear. It is also a good indicator of how hard a species is to saw or nail.

This should only be used as a general guide when comparing various species of wood flooring. Depending on where the wood is harvested the results may vary. Plank construction and finish are also important factors when determining the durability and ease of maintenance of any wood floor.

A wood's relative hardness is determined with the Janka Rating System, which measures the force required to drive a .444 inch steel ball into the wood until half the diameter of the ball is imbedded in the wood.

Janka hardness test

The Janka Hardness Scale rating has become the industry standard for determining whether a given wood is suitable for flooring material. Red Oak, which has a Janka rating of 1290, is the industry benchmark for comparing the relative hardness of different wood species.

The majority of hardwoods and many softwoods are durable enough to withstand normal flooring use - especially with proper installation and finishing. However, no matter the Janka rating,  all wood will dent or mar with a hard enough impact .

 

janka hardness scale - according to hardness

Lignum Vitae {Guaiacum officinale} 4500

Jutahy {Dialium guianense} 4000

Palo Santo {Bulnesia sarmientoi} 4000

Verawood {Bulnesia arborea} 4000

Curupay {Anadenanthera macrocarpa} 3840

Kurupayra {Anadenanthera marocarpa} 3840

Mahogany Andean {Piptadenia macrocarpa} 3840

Mahogany Tiger {Piptadenia macrocarpa} 3840

Rosewood Patagonian {Piptadenia macrocarpa} 3840

Snakewood {Piratinera guianensis} 3800

Olivewood Brazilian {Ferreirea spectabilis} 3700

Ebony Brazilian {Swartzia tomentosa} 3692

Wamara - Ebony Brazilian {Swartzia tomentosa} 3692

IPE {Tabebula serratifolia} 3680

Leadwood {Krugiodendron ferreum} 3660

Marishballi {Lincania sparsipilis} 3570

Monkey Apple {Lincania sparsipilis} 3570

Sapote {Lincania sparsipilis} 3570

Orosi {Dipteryx panamensis} 3540

Teak Brazilian {Dipteryx odorata} 3540

Ebony Mexican {Swartzia cubensis} 3510

Katalox {Swartzia cubensis} 3510

Wamara - Katalox {Swartzia cubensis} 3510

Manbarklak {Eschweilera sagotiana} 3480

Azobe {Lophira aiata} 3350

Moabi {Baillonella toxisperma} 3320

Pearwood African {Baillonella toxisperma} 3320

Rosewood Tiete {Guibourtia chodatianal} 3280

Ebony Macassar {Diospyrus celebica} 3250

Ebony Ceylon {Diospyros ebenum} 3220

Ebony Gaboon {Diospyrus crassiflora} 3220

Mahogany Mountain {Cercocarpus ledifolius} 3200

Cerezo {Manilkara bidentata} 3190

Cherry Bolivian {Manilkara bidentata} 3190

Cherry Salinas {Manilkara achras} 3190

Massarasanduba {Manilkara bidentata} 3190

Quinilla {Manilkara bidentata} 3190

Redwood Brazilian {Manilkara bidentata} 3190

Zapote {Manilkara bidentata} 3190

Rata Southern {Metrosideros lucida} 3180

Rosewood East Indian {Dalbergia latifolia} 3170

Cuchi {Astronium urundeuva} 3150

Rata Northern {Metrosideros robusta} 3150

Black African Ironwood {Olea laurifolia} 3120

Cherry Caribbean {Lonchocarpus castilloi} 3100

Machiche {Lonchocarpus castillo} 3100

Amburana {Amburana cearensis} 3040

Angelim Pedra {Hymenolobium petraeum} 3040

Tamarindo {Tamarindus indica} 3000

Turpentine {Syncarpia glomulifera} 2967

Bloodwood {Brosimum rubescens} 2900

Cardinal Wood {Brosimum rubescens} 2900

Itauba {Mezilaurus navalium} 2900

Kaneelhart {Licaria canella} 2900

Satine {Brosimum rubescens} 2900

Faveira {Mora gonggrijpii} 2895

Brazilwood {Caesalpinia echinata} 2820

Cherry Andean {Guibourtia chodatianal} 2820

Cherry Brazilian {Hymenaea courbaril} 2820

Cherry Patagonian {Guibourtia chodatianal} 2820

Jatoba {Hymenaea courbaril} 2820

Pernambuco {Caesalpinia echinata} 2820

Lapacho {Tabebuia heptaphylla} 2800

Sirari {Ormosia coarctata} 2800

Walnut Patagonian {Tabebuia heptaphylla} 2800

Okan {Cylicodiscus gabunensis} 2780

Mangrove Red {Rhizophora mangle} 2760

Granadillo {Platymiscium yucatanum} 2750

Hububalli {Loxopterygium sagotii} 2750

Macawood {Platymiscium yucatanum} 2750

Leopard Tree {Caesalpinia ferrea} 2740

Olivewood East African {Olea hochstetteri} 2740

Pau Ferro {Caesalpinia ferrea} 2740

Cohoba {Anadenanthera peregrina} 2730

Parica {Anadenanthera peregrina} 2730

Rosewood Brazilian {Dalbergia nigra} 2720

Mahogany Red {Eucalyptus resinifera} 2697

Bubinga {Guibourtia demeusei} 2690

Billian {Eusideroxylon zwageri} 2680

Billy Webb {Sweetia panamensis} 2670

Chestnut Southern {Sweetia panamensis} 2670

Satinwood East Indian {Chloroxylon swietenia} 2600

Marblewood {Diospyros marmorata} 2532

Bois De Rose {Dalbergia decipularis} 2500

Tulipwood Brazilian {Dalbergia decipularis} 2500

Gum Spotted {Eucalyptus maculate} 2473

Acacia White Bark {Acacia leucophloea} 2400

Fustic {Chlorophora tinctoria} 2380

Courbaril {Hymenaea courbaril} 2350

Greenheart {Chlorocardium rodiei} 2350

Mesquite {Prosopis glandulosa} 2345

Timbaúba {Enterolobium schomburgkii} 2330

Pink Ivory Wood {Rhamnus zeyheri} 2320

Chechem {Metopium browneii} 2300

Mora {Mora excelsa} 2300

Persimmon {Diospyros virginiana} 2300

Rosewood Caribbean {Metopium browneii} 2300

Acacia {Acacia decurrens} 2250

Tatajuba {Bagassa guianensis} 2220

Bocote {Cordia gerascanthus} 2200

Mahogany Santos {Myroxylon balsamum} 2200

Quina Quina {Myroxylon balsamum} 2200

Rosewood Honduran {Dalbergia stevensonii} 2200

Tarara Colorado {(Platymiscium fragrans} 2200

Ziricote {Cordia dodecandra} 2200

Amboyna {Pterocarpus indicus} 2170

Narra {Pterocarpus indicus} 2170

Padauk Burma {Pterocarpus macrocarpus} 2170

Pradoo {Pterocarpus macrocarpus} 2170

Goncalo Alves {Astronium graveolens} 2160

Tigerwood {Astronium fraxinifolium} 2160

Dogwood Flowering {Cornus florida} 2150

Brushbox {Lophostemon confertus} 2145

Sucupira {Diplotropis purpurea} 2140

Karri {Eucalyptus diversicolor} 2040

Osage Orange {Maclura pomifera} 2040

Wallaba {Eperua falcata} 2040

Ash Blue {Fraxinus quadrangulata} 2030

Gum Sydney Blue {Eucalyptus saligna} 2025

Arariba {Centrolobium microchaete} 2000

Canarywood {Centrolobium microchaete} 2000

Tarara Amarilla {Centrolobium microchaete} 2000

Rosewood African {Guibourtia demeusei} 1980

Pyinkado {Xylia xylocarpa} 1950

Cameron {Samanea pedicellaris} 1940

Degame {Calycophyllum candidissimum} 1940

Lemonwood {Calycophyllum candidissimum} 1940

Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) 1938

Tallowwood {Eucalyptus microcorys} 1933

Acacia Red {Acacia seyal} 1920

Shittim {Acacia seyal} 1920

Amendoim {Pterogyne nitens} 1910

Jarrah {Eucalyptus marginata} 1910

Pau Fava {Pterogyne nitens} 1910

Ybyraro {Pterogyne nitens} 1910

Hophornbeam Eastern {Ostrya virginiana} 1860

Purpleheart {Peltogyne paniculata} 1860

Almendro {Terminalia amazonia} 1855

Nargusta {Terminalia amazonia} 1855

Hickory {Carya illinoensis} 1820

Knob Thorn {Acacia nigrescens} 1820

Pecan {Carya illinoensis} 1820

Satinwood Jamaican {Zanthoxylum flavum} 1820

Yellowheart {Zanthoxylum flavum} 1820

Afzelia Doussie {Afzelia africana} 1810

Ash Brazilian {Apuleia leiocarpa} 1800

Garapa {Apuleia leiocarpa} 1800

Grapia {Apuleia leiocarpa} 1800

Guayabon {Terminalia oblonga} 1800

Rosewood Kingwood {Dalbergia cearensis} 1800

Serviceberry {Amelanchier canadensis} 1800

Bangkirai {Shorea laevis} 1798

Lyptus {Eucalyptus globules} 1796

Laurel Mountain {Kalmia latifolia} 1790

Hornbeam American {Carpinus caroliniana} 1780

Morado {Machaerium scleroxylon} 1780

Pau Ferro {Machaerium acutifolium} 1780

Rosewood Bolivian {Machaerium sclieroxylon} 1780

Angelin {Andira inermis} 1750

Benge {Guibourtia amoldiana} 1750

Mangium {Acacia mangium} 1750

Tobaccowood {Myrocarpus floridosus} 1750

Wattle Black {Acacia mangium} 1750

Tree Of Heaven {Ailanthus altissima} 1731

Apple {Malus sylvestris} 1730

Peroba Rosa {Aspidosperma peroba } 1730

Yvyraro {Aspidosperma polyneuron} 1730

Padauk African {Pterocarpus soyauxii} 1725

Blackwood African {Dalbergia melanoxylon} 1720

Para Angelim {Hymenolobium excelsum} 1720

Piquia {Caryocar villosum} 1720

Kwila {Intsia palembanica} 1712

Merbau {Intsia palembanica} 1712

Kempas {Koompassia malaccensis} 1710

Locust Black {Robinia pseudoacacia} 1700

Nanciton {Hieronima alchorneoides} 1700

Nogal {Hyeronima alchorneoides} 1700

Pilon {Hyeronima alchorneoides } 1700

Rengas {Gluta wallichii} 1665

Mutenye {Guibourtia arnoldiana} 1650

Ovangkol - Shedua {Guibourtia arnoldiana} 1650

Shedua {Guibourtia arnoldiana} 1650

Walnut Tiger's Eye {Guibourtia arnoldiana} 1650

Balau Red {Shorea plagata} 1640

Opepe {Nauclea diderrichii} 1630

Padauk Andaman {Pterocarpus dalbergioides} 1630

Vermillion {Pterocarpus dalbergioides} 1630

Wenge {Milletia laurentii} 1630

Freijo {Cordia goeldiana} 1627

Oak Swamp White {Quercus bicolor} 1620

Chestnut Patagonian {Cabralea parda} 1610

Gingerwood {Chlorophora tinctoria} 1600

Palm Coconut {Cocos nucifera} 1600

Peroba De Campos {Paratecoma peroba} 1600

Yew Pacific {Taxus brevifolia} 1600

Locust Honey {Gleditsia triacanthos} 1580

Zebrawood {Microberlina brazzavillensisl} 1575

Timborana {Piptadenia suaveolens}1570

Afromosia {Pericopsis elata}1560

Elm Winged {Ulmus alata} 1540

Witch Hazel {Hamamelis virginiana } 1530

Olivewood Bethlehem Jerusalem {Olea europaea} 1520

Oak Pin {Quercus palustris} 1510

Sapele {Entandrophragma cylindricum} 1510

Ivorywood {Balfourodendron riedelianum} 1500

Maple Brazilian {Balfourodendron riedelianum} 1500

Maple Patagonian {Balfourodendron riedelianum} 1500

Palm Black {Borassus flabellifer} 1500

Pau Marfim {Balfourodendron riedelianum} 1500

Apixuna {Micropholis venulosa} 1490

Curupixa {Micropholis venulosa} 1490

Awoura {Julbernardia pellegriniana} 1480

Beli {Julbernardia pellegriniana} 1480

Ekop {Julbernardia pellegriniana} 1480

Oak Cherrybark {Quercus falcata} 1480

Birch Sweet {Betula lenta} 1470

Copaibo {Copaifera multijuga} 1470

Ebony Black & White {Diospyros embryopteris} 1470

Madrone Pacific {Arbutus menziesii} 1460

Manzanita {Arbutus menziesii} 1460

Oak Willow {Quercus phellos} 1460

Tauary {Couratari guianensis} 1460

Maple Hard {Acer saccharum} 1450

Maple Sugar {Acer saccharum} 1450

Pau Rosa {Aniba duckei} 1441

Saddlewood {Vatainea lundellii} 1420

Gum Red River {Eucalyptus camaldulensis} 1410

Sepetir {Pseudosindora palustris} 1410

Mani {Mimosa scabrella} 1400

T'zalam {Lysiloma bahamensis} 1400

Walnut Caribbean {Lysiloma bahamensis} 1400

Coffeetree Kentucky {Gymnocladus dioicus} 1390

Bamboo Natural {Bambusa bambos} 1375

Cypress Australian {Callitrus glauca} 1375

Oak Bur {Quercus macrocarpa} 1370

Oak Post {Quercus stellata} 1360

Oak White {Quercus alba} 1360

Gum Ribbon {Eucalyptus viminalis} 1349

Blue Mahoe {Hibiscus elatus} 1330

Ash White {Fraxinus americana} 1320

Elm Cedar {Ulmus crassifolia} 1320

Elm Rock {Ulmus thomasii} 1320

Oak English Brown {Quercus petraea} 1320

Beech American {Fagus grandifolia} 1300

Beech European {Fagus slyvatica} 1300

Ramin {Gonystylus bancanus} 1300

Angelique {Dicorynia guianensis} 1290

Mersawa {Anisoptera marginata} 1290

Oak Northern Red {Quercus rubra} 1290

Keruing {Dipterocarpus caudiferus} 1270

Laurel California {Umbellularia californica} 1270

Birch Yellow {Betula alleghaniensis} 1260

Iroko {Chlorophora excelsa} 1260

Kambala {Chloraphora excelsa} 1260

Oak Swamp Chestnut {Quercus michauxii} 1240

Pine Caribbean {Pinus caribaea} 1240

Kapur {Dryobalanops aromatica} 1230

Andiroba {Carapa guianensis} 1220

Crabwood {Carapa guianensis} 1220

Oak Black {Quercus velutina} 1210

Oak Laurel {Quercus laurifolia}1210

Ash Green {Fraxinus pennsylvanica} 1200

Oak Overcup {Quercus lyrata} 1190

Oak Water {Quercus nigra} 1190

Bamboo Carbonized {Phyllostachys pubescens} 1180

Maple Black {Acer nigrum} 1180

Nyatoh {Palaquium philippense} 1171

Ash Oregon {Fraxinus latifolia} 1160

Juniper Alligator {Juniperus deppeana} 1160

Teak {Tectona grandis} 1155

Santa Maria {Calophyllum brasiliense} 1150

Meranti White {Shorea javanica} 1140

Rosewood Cocobolo {Dalbergia retusa} 1136

Oak Chestnut {Quercus prinus} 1130

Buckthorn Glossy European {Rhamnus frangula} 1120

Leche Maria {Symphonia globulifera} 1120

Manni {Symphonia globulifera} 1120

Blackwood Australian {Acacia melanoxylon} 1100

Cherry African {Tieghemella heckelii} 1100

Makore {Tieghemella heckelii} 1100

Avodire {Turraeanthus africanus} 1080

Walnut Peruvian {Juglans neotropica} 1080

Cedar Lebanon {Cedrus libani} 1060

Oak Southern Red {Quercus falcata} 1060

Buckthorn Cascara {Rhamnus purshiana} 1040

Guachapele {Pseudosamanea guachapele} 1040

Albarco {Cariniana integrifolia} 1020

Holly American {Ilex opaca} 1020

Magnolia Southern {Magnolia grandiflora} 1020

Mango {Mangifera indica} 1020

Pearwood European {Pyrus communis} 1020

Oak Tasmanian {Eucalyptus delegatensis} 1010

Walnut Black American {Juglans nigra} 1010

Sakura {Sakura disambiguation} 995

Ash Pumpkin {Fraxinus profunda} 990

Cherry Chilean {Nothofagus dombeyi} 990

Coigue {Nothofagus dombeyi} 990

Roble {Amburana cearensis} 980

Cherry Black {Prunus serotina} 950

Imbuya {Phoebe porosa} 950

Maple Red {Acer rubrum} 950

Walnut Brazillian {Phoebe porosa} 950

Cambara {Vochysia ferruginea} 941

Mansonia {Lovoa trichilioides} 940

Sourwood {Oxydendrum arboreum} 940

Morototo {Didymopanax morototoni} 915

Birch Paper {Betula papyrifera} 910

Pine Ocote {Pinus oocarpa} 910

Cedar Red Eastern {Juniperus virginiana} 900

Gommier {Dacryodes excelsa} 900

Ovangkol - Amazakoue {Goubertia ehie} 900

Sande {Brosimum utile} 900

Hackberry {Celtis occidentalis} 880

Tupelo Water {Nyssa aquatica} 880

Pine Longleaf {Pinus palustris} 870

Tomillo {Cedrelinga catenformis} 870

Elm Slippery {Ulmus rubra} 860

Pine Pinyon {Pinus edulis} 860

Ash Black {Fraxinus nigra} 850

Maple Bigleaf {Acer macrophyllum} 850

Sweetgum {Liquidambar styraciflua} 850

Afara Black {Terminalia ivorensis} 845

Elder Blue {Sambucus cerulea} 840

Lacewood Australian {Cardwellia sublimis} 840

Lacewood South American {Roupala brasiliensis} 840

Elm American {Ulmus americana} 830

Khaya {Khaya ivorensis} 830

Larch Western {Larix occidentalis} 830

Mahogany African {Khaya ivorensis} 830

Tupelo Black {Nyssa sylvatica} 810

Mahogany True {Swietenia macrophylla} 800

Capote {Sterculia pruriens} 795

Sterculia {Sterculia pruriens} 795

Rimu {Dacrydium cupressinum} 785

Meranti Dark Red {Shorea hemsleyana} 780

Pine Parana {Araucaria angustifolia} 780

Meranti Yellow {Shorea faguetiana} 770

Sycamore American {Platanus occidentalis} 770

Birch Gray {Betula populifolia} 760

Pine Monterey {Pinus radiata} 750

Pine Pond {Pinus serotina} 740

Pine Virginia {Pinus virginiana} 740

Chinkapin Giant {Castanopsis chrysophylla} 730

Pine Sand {Pinus clausa} 730

Camphor {Cinnamomum camphora} 726

Box Elder {Acer negundo} 720

Cedar Port Orford {Chamaecyparis lawsoniana} 720

Pochote {Bombacopsis quinata} 720

Fir Douglas Coast {Pseudotsuga menziesii} 710

Magnolia {Magnolia acuminata} 700

Maple Silver {Acer saccharimum} 700

Pine Loblolly {Pinus taeda} 690

Pine Shortleaf {Pinus echinata} 690

Hemlock Mountain {Tsuga mertensiana} 680

Palo Blanco {Celtis laevigata} 680

Sumac Staghorn {Rhus typhina} 680

Determa {Ocotea rubra} 660

Fir Douglas Interior West {Pseudotsuga menziesii} 660

Kauri Ancient {Agathis australis} 660

Pine Spruce {Pinus glabra} 660

Pine Table Mountain {Pinus pungens} 660

Primavera {Cybistax donnell-smithii} 660

Cativo {Prioria copaifera} 630

Sassafras {Sassafras albidum} 630

Pine Pitch {Pinus rigida} 620

Cedar Red Southern {Juniperus silicicola} 610

Ilomba {Pycnanthus angolensis} 610

Cedar Spanish {Cedrela huberi} 600

Fir Douglas Interior North {Pseudotsuga menziesii} 600

Alder Red {Alnus rubra} 590

Silverbell Carolina {Halesia carolina} 590

Tamarack {Larix laricina} 590

Cedar Alaska {Chamaecyparis nootkatensis} 580

Cypress Bald {Taxcodium distichum} 570

Pine Lack {Pinus banksiana} 570

Pine Red {Pinus resinosa} 560

Catalpa Northern {Catalpa speciosa} 550

Catalpa Southern {Catalpa bignonioides} 550

Hura {Hura crepitans} 550

Chestnut {Castanea sativa} 540

Chestnut American {Castenea dentata} 540

Hemlock Western {Tsuga heterophylla} 540

Poplar Yellow {Liriodendron tulipifera} 540

Guanacaste {Enterolobium cyclocarpum} 520

Spruce Black {Picea mariana} 520

Banak {Virola koschnyi} 510

Fir Douglas Interior South {Pseudotsuga menziesii} 510

Spruce Sitka {Picea sitchensis} 510

Fir California Red {Abies magnifica} 500

Hemlock Eastern {Tsuga canadensis} 500

Pine Jeffrey {Pinus jeffreyi} 500

Butternut {Juglans cinerea} 490

Fir Grand {Abies grandis} 490

Limba {Terminalia superba} 490

Spruce Red {Picea rubra} 490

Fir White {Abies concolor} 480

Pine Lodgepole {Pinus contorta} 480

Redwood Old Growth {Sequoia sempervirens} 480

Spruce White {Picea glauca} 480

Cedar Incense {Libocedrus decurrens} 470

Espave {Anacardium excelsum} 470

Cypress Mexican {Cupressus lustianica} 460

Meranti Light Red {Shorea parvifolia} 460

Pine Ponderosa {Pinus ponderosa} 460

Simarouba {Simarouba amara} 440

Cottonwood Eastern {Populus deltoides} 430

Fir Pacific Silver {Abies amabilis} 430

Obeche {Triplochiton scleroxylon} 430

Pine Limber {Pinus flexilis} 430

Poplar {Populus deltoids} 430

Sajo {Campnosperma panamensis} 425

Aspen Bigtooth {Populus grandidentata} 420

Jobo {Spondias mombin} 420

Pine Western White {Pinus monticola} 420

Redwood Second Growth {Sequoia sempervirens} 420

Basswood American {Tilia americana} 410

Fir Noble {Abies procera} 410

Chicha {Sterculia apetala} 400

Fir Balsam {Abies balsamea} 400

Mahogany Royal {Pithecellobium arboreum} 400

Jelutong {Dyera costulata} 390

Spruce Engelmann {Picea engelmanni} 390

Cuangare {Dialyanthera Iryanthera spp} 380

Okoume {Aucoumea klaineana} 380

Pine Eastern White {Pinus strobus} 380

Pine Pumpkin {Pinus strobus} 380

Pine Sugar {Pinus lambertiana} 380

Almácigo {Bursera simaruba} 370

Gumbo Limbo {Bursera simaruba} 370

Mastate {Poulsenia armata} 360

Willow Black {Salix nigra} 360

Aspen Quaking {Populus tremuloides} 350

Buckeye Yellow {Aesculus octandra} 350

Cedar Red Western {Thuja plicata} 350

Cedar White Atlantic {Chamaecyparis thyoides} 350

Cottonwood Black {Populus trichocarpa} 350

Fir Subalpine {Abies lasiocarpa} 350

Cedar White Northern {Thuja occidentalis} 320

Cottonwood {Populus balsamifera} 300

Kapok {Ceiba pentandra} 281

Paulownia {Paulownia elongata} 250

Oak Cork - The Bark {Quercus suber} 200

Actually Sold For Flooring

Balsa {Ochroma pyramidale} 100